The accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI) is primarily considered a motor nerve that supplies two muscles: the sternomastoid muscle and the trapezius muscle. In this video, I discuss the movements associated with these muscles, the course of the accessory nerve, and some of the symptoms that can occur after accessory nerve damage.
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the area of the brain that is anterior to, or in front of, the motor cortex. It is most commonly associated with executive functions: cognitive processes that involve controlling short-sighted behavior to act with a goal in mind. In this video, I discuss the anatomy and general function of the PFC.
The glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX) is responsible for a number of sensory and motor functions associated with the tongue (glossa in Greek) and the pharynx, or throat. In this video, I discuss the anatomy and function of the glossopharyngeal nerve, as well as what symptoms can appear when the nerve is damaged.
The vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII) is responsible for carrying information to the brain from the vestibular system and the cochlea. The information from the cochlea deals with hearing, while the information from the vestibular system deals with vestibular sensations, which include information about head position and movement. These vestibular sensations enable us to keep our balance, stabilize our head and body during movement, and maintain posture. In this video, I discuss the anatomy and function of the vestibulocochlear nerve, as well as what symptoms can appear when the nerve is damaged.