2-Minute Neuroscience: Accessory Nerve (Cranial Nerve XI)

The accessory nerve (cranial nerve XI) is primarily considered a motor nerve that supplies two muscles: the sternomastoid muscle and the trapezius muscle. In this video, I discuss the movements associated with these muscles, the course of the accessory nerve, and some of the symptoms that can occur after accessory nerve damage.

2-Minute Neuroscience: Vagus Nerve (Cranial Nerve X)

The vagus nerve is a long cranial nerve that stretches from the brainstem to the colon and is involved in an extensive list of functions. In this video, I summarize the main functions of the vagus nerve, talk about the nuclei associated with the nerve, and discuss some of the symptoms that can appear when the vagus nerve is damaged.

2-Minute Neuroscience: Glossopharyngeal Nerve (Cranial Nerve IX)

The glossopharyngeal nerve (cranial nerve IX) is responsible for a number of sensory and motor functions associated with the tongue (glossa in Greek) and the pharynx, or throat. In this video, I discuss the anatomy and function of the glossopharyngeal nerve, as well as what symptoms can appear when the nerve is damaged.

2-Minute Neuroscience: Vestibulocochlear Nerve (Cranial Nerve VIII)

The vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII) is responsible for carrying information to the brain from the vestibular system and the cochlea. The information from the cochlea deals with hearing, while the information from the vestibular system deals with vestibular sensations, which include information about head position and movement. These vestibular sensations enable us to keep our balance, stabilize our head and body during movement, and maintain posture. In this video, I discuss the anatomy and function of the vestibulocochlear nerve, as well as what symptoms can appear when the nerve is damaged.